Elliot C. Klein
- 2002 Doctral Program, Department of
Stony Brook University, State University of New York.
Area of Research and Thesis Direction:
M.S. 2002 State University of New York at Stony Brook: Geosciences,
Glaciotectonic Shear Zones: Surface Sample Bias and Clast Fabric Interpretation.
Thesis Advisor: Dan M. Davis
B.A. 1990 Alfred University: Fine Art.
– Graduate Research Assistant,
Department of Geosciences, SUNY at Stony Brook.
Aug. 1999 – 2000 Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Geosciences, SUNY at Stony Brook.
Three-dimensional whole earth geodynamics; mantle convection, seismic structures, plate motions;
large-scale numerical modeling; theoretical geophysics, whole planet geodynamics.
American Geophysical Union
Seismological Society of America
Geological Society of America
William E. Holt, Lianxing Wen, Dan M. Davis
Klein, E.C., Flesch, L. M., Holt, W. E., Wen, L., and Haines, A. J., 2003, Stress Magnitudes in Asia and North America: Implications for Strength Profiles, Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., S22A-0409.
Flesch, L. M., Holt, W. E., Wen, L., Klein, E. C., Haines, A. J., and Shen-Tu, B., 2003, Understanding the Driving Forces of Western North America Deformation using Geodesy, Seismology, and Geology, UNAVCO Meeting, Yosemite, California.
EC, Flesch LM, Holt WE, Haines AJ, Wen L, 2002. An integrated approach to
understanding the driving forces
of deforming western North America, Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T11D-1283.
EC, Davis DM, Submitted July 18, 2002. Surface Sample Bias And Clast Fabric
Interpretation, Earth Surface Processes and
EC, Davis DM, 2002. Surface
sample bias and clast fabric interpretation based on till, Ditch Plains, Long
Island: In "Geology of
Long Island and Metropolitan New York", Hanson GN, (ed.) Long Island Geologists: State University of New York, 14-26.
EC, Davis DM, 2001. Long
Island Clast orientations and what they till us: In "Geology of Long
Island and Metropolitan New
York", Hanson GN, (ed.) Long Island Geologists: State University of New York, 35-40.
EC, Davis DM, 1999. Glaciotectonic
Process and Glacigenic Sediments on Eastern Long Island: In "Geology
of Long Island
and Metropolitan New York", Hanson GN, (ed.) Long Island Geologists: State University of New York, 36-43.
EC, Meyers WJ, Davis DM, 1998. Deciphering the origin of diamict deposits at
Ditch Plains, Long Island: In "Geology of Long
Island and Metropolitan New York", Hanson GN, (ed.) Long Island Geologists: State University of New York, 54-63.
1998 URECA (Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity) Summer Research Fellow
2003 Fellowship, NASA Summer School for High Performance Computational Earth and Space Sciences
The current research and thesis direction, I am undertaking aims at the advancement of our fundamental understanding of theoretical and observational whole earth geodynamics. Most earth scientists today theorize that mantle convection causes lateral and radial variations of chemistry and temperature in the mantle. These lateral and radial variations eventually drive mantle convection and produce observable signatures, such as plate motion and plate deformation, at the Earth's surface. These observable signatures are crucial to understanding the geodynamic relationship between mantle dynamics and plate tectonics and these signatures must be used to test against predictions produced from convection and lithosphere dynamic models.
My goal is to construct a complete description of both lithospheric and mantle dynamics of the Earth by relating large-scale geodynamic observations of topography, geoid, plate motions, and intra-plate stresses, with mantle convection and rheology. The approach is to solve the force-balance equations directly for vertically averaged deviatoric stress in the lithosphere, using the complete set of possible forces that are applied to the lithosphere. I hope to provide insight into (1) lithospheric-mantle coupling, (2) lithospheric dynamics of both continents and oceans, and (3) the role of lateral viscosity variations in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. These new generations of three-dimensional models will be directly constrained by surface observables of geodesy, gravity, topography, stress measurements from the World Stress Map, crustal structure estimates, earthquake moment tensor solutions, together with mantle tomography solutions, and the inferred history of subduction.
Currently, with the help of my advisors, I am developing a new method to calculate, globally, the total vertically averaged deviatoric stress field by a joint modeling of lithosphere (thin sheet) modeling with large-scale three-dimensional mantle circulation modeling. This procedure is set up as an inverse method in which the forces constitute observations and the deviatoric stresses constitute model parameter estimates. These forces include (1) body forces associated with gravitational potential energy (GPE) differences within the lithosphere (directly inferred from observations of topography, geoid, and seismically defined crustal thickness) and (2) basal tractions associated with observational constrained large-scale mantle circulation. The coupled three-dimensional circulation models, while providing basal tractions at the base of the lithosphere, will also predict surface topography, geoid, and surface motions that are directly compared with surface observations. Various lateral and radial viscosity structures will be tested in the three-dimensional mantle circulation models. Solutions for deviatoric stresses in the lithosphere associated with GPE differences are added to deviatoric stresses in the lithosphere associated with basal tractions to produce a total lithospheric deviatoric stress field. This total lithospheric deviatoric stress field is compared with observation (direction and style of strain inferred from the Global Strain Rate Map, and direction of stress from the World Stress Map) to evaluate the best mantle-lithosphere coupling model. It will then be possible to infer the vertically averaged effective viscosity field for the lithosphere using absolute magnitudes of deviatoric stress and the strain rates from the World Strain Rate Map.
The vertically averaged lithospheric viscosity field provides the basis for a new set of global circulation calculations, leading to refined lithospheric dynamic models that will provide insight into the role of the actual lithosphere viscosity contrasts affecting mantle circulation, basal tractions, plate motions, and lithospheric dynamics. This iterative modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics requires simultaneous fitting of the model deviatoric stress field with stress field indicators (stress direction from the World Stress Map direction and directions of principal strain and the style of strain from the Global Strain Rate Map) as well as model predictions from mantle circulation calculations that match the large-scale geoid, topography, and plate motions. Such observationally constrained lithospheric and mantle circulation models potentially address fundamental questions in geodynamics. With such models I expect to shed light on the role of lithosphere-mantle coupling, asthenospheric and lithospheric viscosity and their lateral variations, the role that the actual lithospheric viscosity variations play in affecting mantle, basal tractions and plate motion, as well as the relative importance of the various driving forces for plate motion and plate boundary deformation.